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Chemical Analysis and Composition of Biomolecules-CBSE Biology Notes Class 11-NEET Coaching Center In Jalandhar-ANAND CLASSES

Chemical Analysis and Composition of Biomolecules-CBSE Biology Notes Class 11-NEET Coaching Center In Jalandhar-ANAND CLASSES

Importance of Biomolecules Chapter

The Biomolecules chapter in class 11 biology mainly explains the different types of biomolecules and their importance in living organisms. This topic is not only important for the class 11 board exam but also for competitive exams (NEET).

Useful Study Material For the Teachers and students to teach and study respectively by clicking from the following links.

Click the link below to teach / view the detailed explanation of Chapter Biomolecules (Introduction)

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The cells form the basis of each organism. Thus, the cell and its constituents play a major role in any organism’s life. We know the cell is made up of a membrane and several organelles that are with or even without membrane, in details. The cell has living and non-living materials or chemicals in it. All the matter in an organism at molecular level looks similar which means that the organisms share the molecular characters also. The molecular composition in a cell and around it in a tissue is similar for all living organisms and also for the earth’s crust as found in a study. However, the hydrogen and carbon contents are more in a living tissue or a cell.

Let’s take a glance at biomolecules and its chemical composition in living organisms.

What is Biomolecule?

All the carbon-based compounds that are found in or produced by organisms and are essential to a biological process are called biomolecules.

Biomolecules are all the carbon-containing compounds (organic compounds) present in the living entities. They are organic molecules present in living cells and are involved in the maintenance and metabolic processes of living organisms. Even molecules such as metabolites (primary and secondary) are considered as biomolecules.

There are four major classes of Biomolecules –  

  1. Carbohydrates.
  2. Proteins.
  3. Nucleic acids.
  4. Lipids.

Every biomolecule is essential for body functions and is manufactured by the body. It can vary in nature, type, structure and functions. Biomolecules are made up of functional groups. Some of the Biomolecules are straight chains; others may be cyclic rings or both.  Moreover, they can vary in their physical properties such as water solubility and melting points.

How did Scientist Analysed the Chemical Components of the Cell?

  • The cell usually is of micrometre size which is enclosed in a membrane or a wall. Thus, to study its constituents we need to open the cell and expose or reveal its compounds.
  • The cell is hence extracted from a source (plant stem, animal liver, microbial colony, etc.) and then mixed with trichloroacetic acid (Cl3CCOOH). This mixture is ground with pestle and mortar which is further strained through cheese cloth or cotton.
  • The resultant has two fractions : filtrate is called as acid soluble pool, while the residue is called as acid insoluble fraction.
  • The acid pool includes cytoplasmic composition. The cytoplasm and organelles have macromolecules which are insoluble in acid and thus are present in the residue.
  • The fractions obtained are further separated to identify and study the components of the cell by various analytical techniques.
  • The conclusions from the methods used are that the cell has both small and large molecules present in it. The filtrate is found to have small molecular weight chemicals called as biomicromolecules and large molecular weight chemicals are called as biomacromolecules.

Important Biomolecules Class 11 Questions for Board Exams

  1. Define macromolecules with an example.
  2. Diagrammatically represent a glycosidic bond.
  3. What are secondary metabolites?
  4. What are proteins?
  5. Expand RuBisCO.
  6. What are Polysaccharides? State two examples.
  7. What is a nucleotide?
  8. Define Metabolism.
  9. What is ATP? State its function.
  10. Explain anabolic pathways
  11. State the factors influencing enzyme activity.
  12. What is a competitive inhibitor?
  13. Briefly describe the classification of enzymes.
  14. List the important characteristics of enzymes.

To help the students to understand this topic properly, here, the biomolecule notes for class 11 are provided. Students can check these notes and learn this chapter in a more effective way. Along with the notes, some important questions related to biomolecules are also provided.

These notes given here are easily understandable and engaging. The students are suggested to go through these notes thoroughly to understand biomolecules and its fundamentals completely. Students can also check ANAND CLASSES’S APP to learn various topics in a more effective way.

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